Writing refers to the multiple, coordinated processes, and skills teachers and students use in a certain context to create a written product. Various cognitive processes include long-term and working memory, planning, text generation, evaluating, revising, metacognition (Berninger, Abbott, Whitaker, Sylvester, & Nolen, 1995), and employing technologies (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001). Writing skills include proper use of phonology, morphology, orthography/spelling, syntax, handwriting, and vocabulary. The social context of the classroom and motivation of the students can be capitalized on to enhance the students’ abilities to acquire effective writing processes and skills.
Evidence-based practices for writing typically include those that emphasize learners’ needs; elements of the writing process; use of various texts; technology; feedback; goal-setting for composing, monitoring, evaluating, and automaticity; and supportive writing environments. For example, teachers can implement strategy instruction to make the processes of writing explicit, employ activities in which students compare and contrast texts and specific attributes of texts, facilitate students’ reading and responding to texts, use rubrics, engage in peer and teacher conferencing, and assist students in creating and attaining goals for writing. According to Troia (2014), teachers may consider differentiated instruction through strategic instructional grouping arrangements (i.e., whole class, small group, and individual teaching during writing conferences); the application of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles (i.e., providing multiple means of representation, expression, and engagement); and learner-centered adaptations” (p. 35).
For more information, please see the Innovation Configuration developed by Troia on our website.