References

ACT. (2005). Crisis at the core: Preparing all students for college and work. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/crisis_report.pdf

Berninger V, Abbott R, Whitaker D, Sylvester L, Nolen S. Integrating low-level skills and high-level skills in treatment protocols for writing disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly. 1995;18:293–309.

Berninger V, Abbott R, Abbott S, Graham S, Richards T. (2002). Writing and reading: Connections between language by hand and language by eye. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 39–56.

Cahill, S. M. (2009). Where does handwriting fit in? Intervention in School and Clinic, 44, 223-228.

De La Paz, S. & Graham, S. (2002). Explicitly teaching strategies, skills, and knowledge: Writing instruction in middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 687. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.94.4.687

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.corestandards.org/read-the-standards/

Coker, D.L., & Lewis, W.(2008).Beyond Writing Next: A discussion of writing research and instructional uncertainty. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 231-251.

Comber, B., Thomson, P., & Wells, M. (2001). Critical Literacy Finds a “Place”: Writing and Social Action in a Low-Income Australian Grade 2/3 Classroom. The Elementary School Journal, 101(4), 451-464

Elbow, P. (1993). The war between reading and writing: And how to end it. Rhetoric Review, 12(1), 5-24.

Graham, S. & Harris, K.R., (2005). Improving the writing performance of young struggling writers. The Journal of Special Education, 39, 19-33.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Larsen, L. (2001). Prevention and intervention of writing difficulties for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice16(2), 74-84.

Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools–A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Harris, A. H. (2006). Does expressive writing reduce healthcare utilization? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 243‐252.

Monroe, B. W., & Troia, G. A. (2006). Teaching writing strategies to middle school students. with disabilities. Journal of Educational Research, 100, 21-33.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2003). Remedial Education at Degree- Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000 (NCES 2004-010), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2012).
The Nation’s Report Card: Writing 2011 (NCES 2012–470).
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.

National Commission on Writing (for America’s Families, Schools, and Colleges). (2004). Writing: A ticket to work or a ticket out: A survey of business leaders. New York, NY: College Entrance Examination Board.

National Commission on Writing (for America’s Families, Schools, and Colleges). (2006). Writing and school reform. New York, NY: College Entrance Examination Board.

Reid R, Lienemann, T.O. (2006). Self-regulated strategy development for written expression with students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exceptional Children, 73, 53–68.

Saddler, B., & Asaro-Saddler, K. (2013). Response to intervention in writing: A suggested framework for screening, intervention, and progress monitoring. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 29(1), 20-43.

Salahu-Din, D., Persky, H., & Miller, J. (2008). The nation’s report card: Writing 2007 (NCES 2008– 468). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Santangelo, T., & Olinghouse, N. G. (2009). Effective writing instruction for students who have writing difficulties. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(4), 1-20.

Schumaker, J.B., & Deshler, D.D. (2009). Adolescents with Learning Disabilities as Writers: Are We Selling Them Short? Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(2), 81-92.

Swanson, H. & Hoskyn, M. (2001). Instructing adolescents with learning disabilities: A component and composite analysis. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16(2), 109-119.

Torrence, M. & Galbraith, D. (2006). The processing demands of writing. In C.A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (67-80). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Troia, G. (2014). Evidence-based practices for writing instruction (Document No. IC-5). Retrieved from University of Florida, Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Accountability, and Reform Center website: http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu/tools/innovation-configuration/

Additional Resources

Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2005). Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.

Graham, S., MacArthur, C. A., & Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.). (2013). Best practices in writing instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Graham, S., Bollinger, A., Booth Olson, C., D’Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., McCutchen, D., & Olinghouse, N. G. (2012). Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers: A practice guide (NCEE 2012- 4058). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Insti­tute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications_reviews.aspx#pubsearch.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Troia, G. A. (2000). Self-regulated strategy development revisited: Teaching writing strategies to struggling writers. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(4), 1-14.

Graham, S., Olinghouse, N. G., Harris, K. R. (2008). Teaching composing to students with learning disabilities: Scientifically-supported recommendations. In G. A. Troia (Ed.), Writing instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices. New York: Guilford.

Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Olinghouse, N. G., & Colwell, R. (in press). Preparing students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. Intervention in School and Clinic.

Olinghouse, N. G., & Santangelo, T. (2010). Assessing the writing of struggling learners. Focus on Exceptional Children, 43(4), 1-27.

Olinghouse, N. G. (2009). Writing assessment for struggling learners. Perspectives in Language and Literacy, Summer, 15-18.

Olinghouse, N. G., Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2010). Evidence-based writing practices at the primary and secondary/tertiary level. In M. R. Shinn, H. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior in a three-tier model including RTI (pp. 553-570). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Reid, R., Lienemann, T. O., & Hagaman, J. L. (2006). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Troia, G. A. (2013). Effective writing instruction in the 21st century. In B. M. Taylor & N. K. Duke (Eds.), Handbook of effective literacy instruction: Research-based practice K-8 (pp. 298-345). New York: Guilford Press.

 Troia, G. A. (2013). Writing instruction within a response to intervention framework: Prospects and challenges for elementary and secondary classrooms. In S. Graham, C. A. MacArthur, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Best practices in writing instruction (2nd, pp. 403-427). New York: Guilford Press.

 Troia, G. A. (2009). Self-regulation and the writing process: Enhancing the performance of students with language and learning difficulties. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 16(1), 28-36.

Troia, G. A. (Ed.). (2009). Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices. New York: Guilford Press.

Troia, G. A. (2006). Writing instruction for students with learning disabilities. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 324-336). New York: Guilford Press.

Troia, G. A., & Graham, S. (2003). Effective writing instruction across the grades: What every educational consultant should know. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 14, 75-89.

Software

Websites: Activities and Information

IRIS Center: case study unit, Written Expression: Grades 2-5 http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/ICS-013.pdf

Literacy Information and Communication System: The TEAL Project and Strategies for Research-Based Writing Instruction – Discussion Announcement – Reading and Writing Discussion List http://lincs.ed.gov/lincs/discussions/readwrite/11teal

Education Northwest: Common Core State Standards and the 6+1 Trait® Writing Model of Instruction & Assessment http://educationnorthwest.org/traits/ccss/crosswalk-between-traits-ccss

CAST: About UDL www.cast.org/udl

Contributing Developers

Thomas, R. A., Troia, G. A. & McCray, E. D. (2016). Course Enhancement Module: Evidence-Based Writing Instruction. Gainesville, FL: The CEEDAR Center. Retrieved on (month day, year) from http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu/cems

OSEP LogoThis website was produced under U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Award No. H325A120003. David Guardino serves as the project officer. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the positions or polices of the U.S. Department of Education. No official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any product, commodity, service, or enterprise mentioned in this website is intended or should be inferred.