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Berninger V, Abbott R, Abbott S, Graham S, Richards T. (2002). Writing and reading: Connections between language by hand and language by eye. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 39–56.

Cahill, S. M. (2009). Where does handwriting fit in? Intervention in School and Clinic, 44, 223-228.

De La Paz, S. & Graham, S. (2002). Explicitly teaching strategies, skills, and knowledge: Writing instruction in middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 687. doi:10.1037//0022-0663.94.4.687

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards. Retrieved from:

Coker, D.L., & Lewis, W.(2008).Beyond Writing Next: A discussion of writing research and instructional uncertainty. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 231-251.

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Graham, S. & Harris, K.R., (2005). Improving the writing performance of young struggling writers. The Journal of Special Education, 39, 19-33.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Larsen, L. (2001). Prevention and intervention of writing difficulties for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice16(2), 74-84.

Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools–A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Harris, A. H. (2006). Does expressive writing reduce healthcare utilization? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 243‐252.

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Additional Resources

Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2005). Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.

Graham, S., MacArthur, C. A., & Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.). (2013). Best practices in writing instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Graham, S., Bollinger, A., Booth Olson, C., D’Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., McCutchen, D., & Olinghouse, N. G. (2012). Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers: A practice guide (NCEE 2012- 4058). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Insti­tute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Troia, G. A. (2000). Self-regulated strategy development revisited: Teaching writing strategies to struggling writers. Topics in Language Disorders, 20(4), 1-14.

Graham, S., Olinghouse, N. G., Harris, K. R. (2008). Teaching composing to students with learning disabilities: Scientifically-supported recommendations. In G. A. Troia (Ed.), Writing instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices. New York: Guilford.

Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Olinghouse, N. G., & Colwell, R. (in press). Preparing students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. Intervention in School and Clinic.

Olinghouse, N. G., & Santangelo, T. (2010). Assessing the writing of struggling learners. Focus on Exceptional Children, 43(4), 1-27.

Olinghouse, N. G. (2009). Writing assessment for struggling learners. Perspectives in Language and Literacy, Summer, 15-18.

Olinghouse, N. G., Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2010). Evidence-based writing practices at the primary and secondary/tertiary level. In M. R. Shinn, H. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior in a three-tier model including RTI (pp. 553-570). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Reid, R., Lienemann, T. O., & Hagaman, J. L. (2006). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Troia, G. A. (2013). Effective writing instruction in the 21st century. In B. M. Taylor & N. K. Duke (Eds.), Handbook of effective literacy instruction: Research-based practice K-8 (pp. 298-345). New York: Guilford Press.

 Troia, G. A. (2013). Writing instruction within a response to intervention framework: Prospects and challenges for elementary and secondary classrooms. In S. Graham, C. A. MacArthur, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Best practices in writing instruction (2nd, pp. 403-427). New York: Guilford Press.

 Troia, G. A. (2009). Self-regulation and the writing process: Enhancing the performance of students with language and learning difficulties. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 16(1), 28-36.

Troia, G. A. (Ed.). (2009). Instruction and assessment for struggling writers: Evidence-based practices. New York: Guilford Press.

Troia, G. A. (2006). Writing instruction for students with learning disabilities. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp. 324-336). New York: Guilford Press.

Troia, G. A., & Graham, S. (2003). Effective writing instruction across the grades: What every educational consultant should know. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 14, 75-89.


Websites: Activities and Information

IRIS Center: case study unit, Written Expression: Grades 2-5

Literacy Information and Communication System: The TEAL Project and Strategies for Research-Based Writing Instruction – Discussion Announcement – Reading and Writing Discussion List

Education Northwest: Common Core State Standards and the 6+1 Trait® Writing Model of Instruction & Assessment


Contributing Developers

Thomas, R. A., Troia, G. A. & McCray, E. D. (2016). Course Enhancement Module: Evidence-Based Writing Instruction. Gainesville, FL: The CEEDAR Center. Retrieved on (month day, year) from

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