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Ohio Policy Profile

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Ohio

Teaching Standards and Leadership Standards

Teaching Standards

Is working with students with disabilities and meeting the needs of students with disabilities addressed in state teaching standards?

The Standards for Ohio Educators specifically address the needs of students with disabilities.

Standard 1(5): Teachers recognize characteristics of students with disabilities, gifted students, and at-risk students in order to assist in appropriate identification, instruction and intervention.

Standard 4(5): Teachers differentiate instruction to support the learning needs of all students, including students with disabilities, students identified as gifted, and at-risk students.

Source: Ohio State Board of Education, Standards for Ohio Educators

School Leadership Standards

Is knowledge of working with students with disabilities included in leader standards?

Standard two of the Ohio Standards for Principals requires principals to support the implementation of high-quality standards-based instruction that results in higher levels of achievement for all students. One element of this standard is that the principal advocates for high levels of learning for all students, including students with disabilities, students identified as gifted, and at-risk students.

Principals who are proficient in this element:

  • Monitor the identification and instruction of students of diverse abilities, and support teachers and staff in implementing state and local policies.
  • Use disaggregated achievement data to determine the performance and needs of particular students and groups.
  • Regularly examine student performance data to determine under- and over-identification of students in gifted and/or special education.
  • Understand effective acceleration processes, and work with teachers to establish structures that meet student needs and support state and local policies.

Source: Ohio Standards for Principals


Teacher and Principal Preparation

Teacher Preparation – Program Approval/Accreditation

Required course work in teaching students with disabilities/diverse learners

State board of education approval of university-based teacher preparation programs is based on evidence of coursework and experiences designed to include the Ohio standards for the teaching profession. The standards for Ohio educators specifically address the needs of students with disabilities.

Source: Ohio Administrative Code3301-24-03(c)(1)

Clinical time in diverse settings/teaching special populations

The state of Ohio requires a minimum of 12 weeks of full-time student teaching and a minimum of 100 clock hours of field experiences prior to student teaching for initial teacher licensure. It does not require clinical time in teaching special student populations.

Source: Ohio Administrative Code 3301-24-03(c)(7)

Teacher Preparation – Accountability

Quality of teacher preparation programs

Ohio collects some objective data that reflect program performance, including value-added data on the achievement gains of program graduates’ students. Ohio reports these data for institutions of higher education on the state’s website to inform the public with meaningful, readily understandable indicators of how well programs are doing. The data are disaggregated by certification area but not for alternate route programs.

Ohio’s Race to the Top application indicates that the state plans to develop a review process to ensure improvement or removal of ineffective programs. The Increase Higher Education Accountability initiative includes five tasks to ensure that teacher and principal preparation programs in Ohio are held accountable for the success of their graduates:

  • Enhance high-quality program standards by revising licensure rules and aligning teacher preparation program standards;
  • Link evidence of teacher effectiveness as reflected by specific metrics (including student growth measure) to preparation programs in Ohio and annually and publicly report these data;
  • Develop and implement a rigorous process for review and approval of teacher preparation programs and improvement or removal of ineffective programs;
  • Create performance-based funding for public IHEs by expanding preparation options and programs that consistently produce effective teachers; and
  • Annually review unit and program data to incentivize expansion of preparation programs at IHEs that consistently produce effective teachers.

Sources:

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Improving Teacher Preparation in Ohio

Ohio Race to the Top Application Area D: Great Teachers and Leaders, Increased Higher Education Accountability

Principal Preparation – Program Approval/Accreditation

Require course work in leading a school/district that serves students with disabilities/diverse learners

State board of education approval of principal preparation programs is based on evidence of coursework and experiences designed to include the Ohio Standards for Principals or the Ohio Standards for Superintendents.

Elements in standard two of the Ohio Standards for Principals address the needs of students with disabilities. Specifically, they call upon principals to: (1) monitor the identification and instruction of students of diverse abilities, and support teachers and staff in implementing state and local policies; (2) use disaggregated achievement data to determine the performance and needs of particular students and groups; (3) examine school-wide student performance data to determine under- and over-identification of students in gifted and/or special education; and (4) understand effective acceleration processes, and work with teachers to establish structures that meet student needs and support state and local policies.

Sources:

Ohio Administrative Code3301-24-03(c)(1)

Ohio Standards for Principals

Ohio Standards for Superintendents

Principal Preparation – Accountability

Are programs reviewed based on outcomes of graduates’ success? Can school principals be linked back to institutions of higher education and preparation programs?

According to the state’s Race to the Top application, Ohio’s accountability system for principal preparation programs will link principal effectiveness data to principal preparation of Ohio Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) and alternative providers. The Increase Higher Education Accountability project includes five tasks to ensure that teacher and principal preparation programs in Ohio are held accountable for the success of their graduates:

  • Enhance high-quality program standards by revising licensure rules and aligning principal preparation program standards;
  • Link evidence of principal effectiveness as reflected by specific metrics (including student growth measure) to preparation programs in Ohio and annually and publicly report these data;
  • Develop and implement a rigorous process for review and approval of principal preparation programs and improvement or removal of ineffective programs;
  • Create performance-based funding for public IHEs by expanding preparation options and programs that consistently produce effective principals; and
  • Annually review unit and program data to incentivize expansion of preparation programs at IHEs that consistently produce effective principals.

Source: Ohio Race to the Top Application Area D: Great Teachers and Leaders, Increased Higher Education Accountability


Teacher and Principal Certification/Licensure

Teacher Certification/Licensure – Structure

Is a specific certificate, license or endorsement related to special education required?

Ohio does not distinguish between elementary and secondary special education teachers. The state offers only a K-12 special education certification.

The Ohio Intervention Specialist License requirements are built on general education foundation. As evidence, licensure requires candidates to pass both the Assessment of Professional Knowledge (pedagogy assessment) and the content assessment related to their license, e.g. Early Childhood, Hearing Impaired, Mild to Moderate Needs, Moderate to Intensive Needs, or Visually Impaired. As further evidence, Ohio’s Educator Preparation Program Standards include alignment with Ohio’s Academic Content Standards in English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies.

Sources:

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Improving Teacher Preparation in Ohio

Email communication with Ohio Department of Education, July 31, 2014

University System of Ohio, Ohio Educator Licensure Programs: Standards & Requirements Chart

Teacher Certification – Examination

Does the state require teachers to pass a basic skills exam for initial certification? What are the pass rates on the exams? Does the state require Praxis II or more pedagogical assessment for licensure? Does it include anything about teaching diverse learners or special populations?

Teacher candidates in Ohio must take a Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) test for their chosen grade level, as well as the appropriate Praxis II tests for each additional licensure area.

Source: Ohio Testing Requirements, ETS

Teacher Certification/Licensure – Requirements

Is professional development around working with special populations required to move from initial to a professional license?

The Ohio educator licensure system has four tiers to provide opportunities for teachers to advance in their professional careers without leaving the teaching profession. Our policy scan did not identify professional development requirements around working with special student populations for teachers to move from an initial to a professional license.

Source: Ohio Department of Education, Educator Licenses

Principal Certification/Licensure – Requirements

Is prior teaching experience required to become a principal and/or a superintendent? Is specific coursework or other evidence required around working with special populations?

Principals: Candidates must hold a master’s degree, be of good moral character, complete an approved principal preparation program and pass an examination prescribed by the state board of education. They also must complete two years of successful teaching under a provisional or professional teacher license at the age levels for which the principal license is sought and be recommended by the dean or head of teacher education at an institution approved to prepare principals. The principal license is added to a valid professional teacher license after successful completion of the entry year program.

Superintendents: Candidates must hold a principal or administrative specialist license and be valid for administrative duties in a school system. Candidates also must have three years of successful experience in a position requiring a principal or administrative specialist license and complete an approved superintendent preparation program. An associate license may be obtained for individuals with an associate degree who are deemed to be of good moral character and who complete an approved program of preparation in specified areas or have a current license to practice.

Sources:

Ohio Administrative Code 3301-24-05(D) and 3301-24-05 (D3)

Education Commission of the States, Administrator License Requirements, Portability, Waivers and Alternative Certification

George W. Bush Institute, Operating in the Dark


Teacher and Principal Induction

Teacher Induction

Is mentoring required for all new teachers (special education) and for how many years? If so, do program guidelines/requirements specifically address teaching diverse learners?

The four-year-long Ohio Resident Educator Program for beginning teachers requires:

  • Mentoring by teachers who hold a lead professional educator license;
  • Counseling to ensure that participants receive needed professional development; and
  • Measures of appropriate progression through the program.

Source: New Teacher Center, Review of State Policies on Teacher Induction

Principal Induction

Is coaching/mentoring required for all new principals/administrators/ superintendents and for how many years? If so, do program guidelines/requirements specifically serving diverse learners?

State policy does not require that all school administrators receive induction support. However, districts may participate in the Beginning Principal Mentorship Program. This mentoring program is for newly appointed school principals, assistant principals, or persons in charge of school sites.

Sources:

New Teacher Center, Review of State Policies on Teacher Induction

Ohio Department of Education, Beginning Principal Mentorship Program


Teacher and Principal Professional Development Standards

Teacher Professional Development Standards

Does the state have professional development standards for teacher PD?

Ohio Standards for Professional Development specifically addresses the learning needs of students with disabilities. Element three of standard six states that high-quality professional development enhances the understanding of instructional strategies appropriate to specific content and addresses the needs of diverse learners. In a high-quality professional development system, educators learn specific strategies for identifying and meeting the needs of diverse learners, including students with disabilities, gifted students, and at-risk students.

Source: Ohio Standards for Professional Development

Principal Professional Development Standards

Does the state have professional development standards for leadership PD?

Ohio Standards for Professional Development addresses the professional development of school administrators. Element three of standard one states that, “professional development supports and advances the leadership capacity of all educators.” A high-quality professional development system builds the knowledge and skill of administrators to guide continuous instructional improvement.

Source: Ohio Standards for Professional Development