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Michigan Policy Profile

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Michigan

Teaching Standards and Leadership Standards

Teaching Standards

Is working with and meeting the needs of students with disabilities addressed in state teaching standards?

The Michigan State Board of Education (MSBE) formally adopted the InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards and Learning Progressions for Teachers in 2013. Numerous elements of the Standards address the learning needs of students with disabilities. They include:

Standard 2 – Learning Differences: The teacher uses understanding of individual differences and diverse cultures and communities to ensure inclusive learning environments that enable each learner to meet high standards.

Essential Knowledge:

  • The teacher understands students with exceptional needs, including those associated with disabilities and giftedness, and knows how to use strategies and resources to address these needs.

Standard 6 – Assessment: The teacher understands and uses multiple methods of assessment to engage learners in their own growth, to monitor learner progress, and to guide the teacher’s and learner’s decision making.

Performances:

  • The teacher prepares all learners for the demands of particular assessment formats and makes appropriate accommodations in assessments or testing conditions, especially for learners with disabilities and language learning needs.

Essential Knowledge:

  • The teacher understands how to prepare learners for assessments and how to make accommodations in assessments and testing conditions, especially for learners with disabilities and language learning needs.

Critical Dispositions:

  • The teacher is committed to making accommodations in assessments and testing conditions, especially for learners with disabilities and language learning needs.

Standard 7 – Planning for Instruction: The teacher plans instruction that supports every student in meeting rigorous learning goals by drawing upon knowledge of content areas, curriculum, cross-disciplinary skills, and pedagogy, as well as knowledge of learners and the community context.

Performances:

  • The teacher plans collaboratively with professionals who have specialized expertise (e.g., special educators) to design and jointly deliver as appropriate effective learning experiences to meet unique learning needs.

Essential Knowledge:

  • The teacher knows when and how to access resources and collaborate with others to support student learning (e.g., special educators).

Standard 9—Professional Learning and Ethical Practice: The teacher engages in ongoing professional learning and uses evidence to continually evaluate his/her practice, particularly the effects of his/her choices and actions on others (learners, families, other professionals, and the community), and adapts practice to meet the needs of each learner.

Essential Knowledge:

  • The teacher understands laws related to learners’ rights and teacher responsibilities (e.g., appropriate education for learners with disabilities).

Additionally, Michigan’s Certification Standards for Elementary Teachers, Certification Standards for the Preparation of All Elementary Teachers in Reading Instruction, and Certification Standards for the Preparation of All Secondary Teachers in Reading Instruction each address educator preparedness for supporting the learning of students with disabilities.

Sources:

Michigan Department of Education (MDE), InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards and Learning Progressions for Teachers

Email communication from MDE, September 4, 2014

School Leadership Standards

Is knowledge of working with students with disabilities included in leader standards?

In May 2013, the MSBE adopted the Educational Leadership Constituents Council (ELCC) Standards as the revised Michigan Standards for the Preparation of School Principals and adopted a revision of the Michigan Standards for the Preparation of Central Office Administrators. Neither set of Standards specifically addresses the learning needs of students with disabilities. However, each set of Standards establishes the expectation that principals and school administrators “promote the success of every student.”

Sources:

MDE, Michigan Standards for the Preparation of School Principals (Revised, 2013)

Michigan Standards for the Preparation of Central Office Administrators (Revised, 2013)


Teacher and Principal Preparation

Teacher Preparation – Program Approval/Accreditation

Required course work in teaching students with disabilities/diverse learners

“Each Michigan teacher preparation institution shall provide prospective teachers access to theoretical knowledge and practical experiences for the development of cultural competence needed to respect differences and to avert disparate treatment based on race, religion, color, national origin or ancestry, age, gender preference, physical attributes, marital status and disability.”

Applicants for an elementary or secondary provisional teaching certificate must complete “at least 20 semester credit hours of theoretical and practical knowledge” that reflect state teaching standards and related proficiencies. Numerous elements of Michigan’s standards address the learning needs of students with disabilities.

Source: Michigan Administrative Code R. 390.1111 and R. 390.1123, Teacher Certification Code

Clinical time in diverse settings/teaching special populations

Every teacher candidate must complete a directed student teaching experience, for a minimum of 12 weeks, which shall engage the applicant in “practical experiences that reflect and support the standards and related proficiencies for entry-level teachers.” For certification purposes, a minimum of 30 clock hours of classroom teaching and observation under the supervision of a teacher preparation institution is equivalent to 1 semester credit hour in directed teaching. State policy does not specify that this clinical time occur in diverse settings teaching special populations.

Source: Michigan Administrative Code R. 390.1124(2) and R. 390.1123(3), Teacher Certification Code

Teacher Preparation – Accountability

Quality of teacher preparation programs

Michigan collects some program-specific, objective data that reflect performance of traditional teacher preparation programs, including teacher evaluation results as part of the “teaching success rate,” licensure test pass rates, program completion rates, and surveys of candidates and supervisors. The MDE publishes Education Preparation Institution Performance Scores on its website. The state also applies transparent, measurable criteria for conferring program approval. More information about 2014 EPI Performance Scores and prior scores are available on the MDE website.

Michigan requires its alternative route programs to report how many teachers were certified and how long they served in the classroom. It also requires them to compare the evaluations of participating teachers to teachers with traditional certification. A report is published on the state’s website.

The MDE has agreements with both the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) – as it had with NCATE in the past – and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) regarding the accreditation of in-state educator preparation programs.

Sources:

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Improving Teacher Preparation in Michigan

Michigan Department of Education, Educator Preparation Institutions/Programs

Principal Preparation – Program Approval/Accreditation

Require course work in leading a school/district that serves students with disabilities/diverse learners

Michigan requires completion of a state-approved administrator preparation program that requires “a minimum of 18 semester hours of graduate credit, in K-12 school administration.” The Michigan Standards for the Preparation of School Principals requires a “Substantial Field and Clinical Internship Experience,” a six-month, concentrated (9–12 hours per week) internship that includes field experiences within a school-based environment, including assistance from an on-site mentor who has demonstrated experience as an educational leader.

Sources:

Michigan Administrative Code R. 380.107, Administrator Certification Code

Michigan Department of Education, Michigan Standards for the Preparation of School Principals

Principal Preparation – Accountability

Are programs reviewed based on outcomes of graduates’ success? Can school principals be linked back to institutions of higher education and preparation programs?

Our state policy analysis did not identify a state accountability system for school administrator preparation. However, MSBE policies establish an accreditation and five-year review process for these programs.

Source: Michigan Administrative Code R. 380.111, Administrator Certification Code


Teacher and Principal Certification/Licensure

Teacher Certification/Licensure – Structure

Is a specific certificate, license or endorsement related to special education required?

Michigan does not distinguish between elementary and secondary special education teachers. The state offers only a K-12 special education endorsement.

All special education teachers must first earn an initial teaching certificate at either the elementary or secondary level. As a result, elementary special education teachers who earn the initial elementary certificate are held to the same preparation and testing requirements as general elementary teachers. Content testing for secondary teachers depends upon the initial certification. But secondary teachers who hold an initial special education endorsement must have a content minor.

Sources:

National Council on Teacher Quality, 2012 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Improving Teacher Preparation in Michigan

Email communication from the MDE, September 4, 2014

Teacher Certification – Examination

Does the state require teachers to pass a basic skills exam for initial certification? What are the pass rates on the exams? Does the state require Praxis II or more pedagogical assessment for licensure? Does it include anything about teaching diverse learners or special populations?

Teacher candidates are required to take the Michigan Test for Teacher Certification (MTTC). The MTTC includes subject-area tests (including Elementary Education) and a Professional Readiness Examination (formerly referred to as the Basic Skills test). Candidates for certification must pass both the Professional Readiness Examination in Reading, Mathematics, and Writing and the subject-area test(s)—including the Elementary Education test, if applicable—that match the type of certification and/or endorsement(s) being sought.

Sources:

ETS, Overview of Michigan Testing Requirements

MTTC, Michigan Test for Teacher Certification Study Guide

Teacher Certification/Licensure – Requirements

Is professional development around working with special populations required to move from initial to a professional license?

In order to advance to professional teaching certificate, a teacher must present evidence of the satisfactory completion of 3 semester credit hours in an approved course of study in the diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities and differentiated instruction, including field experiences.

Sources:

Michigan Administrative Code R. 390.1132, Teacher Certification Code

Michigan Compiled Laws, 380.1531, The Revised School Code

Principal Certification/Licensure – Requirements

Is prior teaching experience required to become a principal and/or a superintendent? Is specific coursework or other evidence required around working with special populations?

In Michigan, prior teaching experience is not required to become a certified school administrator. Neither is specific coursework on the learning needs of students with disabilities required as part of the certification process.

Source: Michigan Administrative Code R. 380.107 and R. 380.109, Administrator Certification Code


Teacher and Principal Induction

Teacher Induction

Is mentoring required for all new teachers and for how many years? If so, do program guidelines/requirements specifically address teaching diverse learners?

Michigan requires teachers during their first three years to be provided a mentor, participate in an induction program, and participate in 15 days of professional learning (in addition to the 5 days required annually of all educators). The state’s Teacher Induction and Mentoring Program Standards provide guidance about the development and elements of new teacher induction programs, but do not outline requirements that specifically address teaching diverse learners.

Sources:

New Teacher Center, Review of State Policies on Teacher Induction

Michigan Compiled Laws, 380.1526, The Revised School Code

Principal Induction

Is coaching/mentoring required for all new principals/administrators/ superintendents and for how many years? If so, do program guidelines/requirements specifically serving diverse learners?

State policy does not require new school administrators to receive induction support.

Source: New Teacher Center, Review of State Policies on Teacher Induction


Teacher and Principal Professional Development Standards

Teacher Professional Development Standards

Does the state have professional development standards for teacher PD?

Adopted in 2012, the MDE’s Professional Learning Policy reflects the latest standards from Learning Forward. The seven quality indicators in Michigan’s Professional Learning Policy define the elements of an effective professional learning system that contribute most directly to student achievement. The state’s content, process and context standards for professional learning focus on the learning of “all students.”

Source: MDE Professional Learning Policy: Standards for Professional Learning

Principal Professional Development Standards

Does the state have professional development standards for leadership PD?

Adopted in 2012, the MDE’s Professional Learning Policy reflects the latest standards from Learning Forward. The seven quality indicators in Michigan’s Professional Learning Policy define the elements of an effective professional learning system that contribute most directly to student achievement. They apply to teachers as well as building and district administrators.

Source: MDE Professional Learning Policy: Standards for Professional Learning